Stakeholder participation for environmental management

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[ Reed, M.S. 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation, 141: 2417-2431. ] Reed provides a review of the extant literature on stakeholder engagement into the scientific study of SES, with a particular focus on the best methods of stakeholder participation. When stakeholder’s participation is emphasized as a process with a focus on empowerment, equity, trust and learning, he argues that this not only best engages the stakeholders, but also allows for integration of public and scientific knowledge to best understand complex SES.